Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

Journal of the Arab American University  مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث


The properties that influence and control the nature of the geographical distribution of the population clusters can be divided into natural, human, and strategic. This study aimed to demonstrate the impact of the prevailing natural geographic factors on the selection and determination of the locations where the Israeli settlements are concentrated in the West Bank. Terrain, climate conditions, soil, and water resources are all factors that affect and control the nature and distribution of the settlement in any geographical region. This study utilized a historical, inductive, and descriptive-analytical approach. This study concluded that Israel established a network of settlements in different geographical areas with diverse terrain features in the West Bank because each area has its own characteristics, importance, and resources that could be exploited. The study also showed that 72% of the Israeli settlements were constructed in the areas with a moderate Mediterranean climate, 75% of them appeared in areas with more than 300 mm / year of rain, and 71% of them were concentrated in areas with a moderate temperature ranging from 17 to 21 degrees Celsius. In addition, the concentration of most settlements in areas with rich groundwater or near springs led to the fact that Israel controls more than 80% of the renewable groundwater in the West Bank basins. Therefore, this study emphasized the need for a comprehensive national plan aimed at achieving sustainable development in the Palestinian territories, especially in the agricultural and water-rich areas which were two of the most important factors that Israel took into consideration when establishing new settlements. Furthermore, this study recommended that to reduce the amount of the Palestinian land confiscated by Israel for settlement construction purposes. there should be horizontal urban expansion instead of vertical expansion.