The Level of Pain and Anxiety and Depression and its Relationship to the Coping Strategies Used by a Sample of Cancer Patients in Jordan
Background: Pain-related cancer creates significant physical and psychosocial burdens for patients. In Jordan there is limited information about patients’ with cancer complaints of pain and their coping strategies for this kind of pain. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess cancer-related pain, identify coping strategies used by a sample of Jordanian patients with cancer experiencing pain, and, to determine the associations between pain, anxiety and depression as well as the association between pain, anxiety, depression, and coping strategies. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlation design utilizing interview and structured questionnaire with a sample of 100 patients with cancer at the pain clinic of a specialized cancer center in Jordan. The Pain Rating Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Cognitive Coping Strategies Inventory were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive, Chi square and multivariate analyses to detect variable associations. Results: Eighty-three patients reported pain of ≥ 5. 82 patients reported anxiety ≥ 8 and depression ≥ 8 on HADS. There was significant association between pain, anxiety and depression (p < .05). Of the different coping strategies employed there was significant association between pain and anxiety and depression and catastrophizing as coping strategies (p < 0.05). Conclusion: While many psychological factors influence patients’ perception of pain and their resultant behavior this study suggests it would be effective to introduce adaptive coping strategies before patients’ pain reached critical levels to reduce levels of anxiety and depression. Implications: Pain management should include assessment of pain and psychosocial factors often associated with pain.