Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences

Author Country (or Countries)



Recently new mobile devices such as cellular phones, smartphones, and digital cameras are popularly used to take photos. By virtue of these convenient instruments, we can take many photos easily, but we suffer from the difficulty of managing and searching photos due to their large volume. This paper develops a mobile application software, called Photo Cube, which automatically extracts various metadata for photos (e.g., date/time, address, place name, weather, personal event, etc.) by taking advantage of sensors and programming functions embedded in mobile smartphones like Android phones or iPhones. To avoid heavy network traffic and high processing overhead, it clusters photos into a set of clusters hierarchically by GPSs and it extracts the metadata for each centroid photo of clusters automatically. Then it constructs and stores the hierarchies of clusters based on the date/time, and address within the extracted metadata as well as the other metadata into photo database tables in the flash memory of smartphones. Furthermore, the system builds a multidimensional cube view for the photo database, which is popularly used in OLAP(On-Line Analytical Processing) applications and it facilitates the top-down browsing of photos over several dimensions such as date/time, address, etc. In addition to the hierarchical browsing, it provides users with keyword search function in order to find photos over every metadata of the photo database in a user-friendly manner. With these convenient features of the Photo Cube, therefore, users will be able to manage and search a large number of photos easily, without inputting any additional information but with clicking simply the shutter in a camera.