Improving the Performance of Terry Fabrics for use in Pilgrimage Clothes
Terry fabric is a kind of soft pile fabrics. It is distinguished with uncut or cut loops which must have required usage properties such as higher water absorption, bacterial resistance, high wet strength, ability to dye well, good colorfastness, wash ability, soft hand, and hypoallergenic, low cost, and easy availability. Terry fabric is the most popular fabric for home textiles like bath towels, hand towels, kitchen towels, medical towels. One of the popular applications of terry fabrics is pilgrimage (IHRAM) terry cloths. It should have physiological comfort properties; like the breathability, quick absorption and evaporation of sweat, softness, air and water vapor permeability, antibacterial especially in hot weather of Mecca. Terry fabrics are produced by three yarn systems: pile warp, ground warp weft yarns. Pile structure mainly affect the functional properties of terry fabrics. The main factors should be considered in the designing of a terry fabric are the fabric materials, type of ground warp yarns, type of pile warp yarns, type of weft yarns, pile length, pile height and pile structure. This research concerns with improving the performance of terry towels used as pilgrimage (Ihram) cloths by measuring the weight (GSM), fabric thickness and air permeability of the fabric. Three parameters were used in executing the research samples to compare them with a common control sample in the market to achieve the research aims. The first factor is using bamboo fibers as pile warp yarns. The second parameter is using different heights of pile (5.5 mm-6.5mm-7.5 mm). The third parameter is using different types of materials as wefts (Cotton-Lyocel-Bamboo). The result of the research showed that decreasing the pile height improves air permeability. In addition, using bamboo yarns as pile warp and picking by using bamboo and Lyocel yarns improves the performance and physiological comfort characteristics of terry towels such as absorption, evaporation, thermal conductivity, anti-microbial and anti-bacterial abilities. Research Problem: High degrees of temperature in Mecca during the year leads to significant suffering to people during the pilgrimage season. This leads to sweating heavily which is considered an ideal environment for Bacterial growth and thus causes physiological in comfort for them.Antibacterial treatments should be done during final finishing processes for traditional cotton terry towels to provide these fabrics with antibacterial properties, but the efficiency of this treatments is temporary especially with continuous laundering. So, this requires terry towels which provide physiological comfort and durable antibacterial without chemical treatments by using antibacterial natural materials such as bamboo and Lyocel.Objectives: This research aims to producing terry towels used as pilgrimage (IHRAM) cloths which achieve physiological characteristics for people during pilgrimage as following: Improve the ability of water absorption and evaporation, Improve the ability of air permeability which improve thermal conductivity, Improve the anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties.Methodology: The research follows the practical methodology . Results: Decreasing pile height leads to improve air permeability of the fabric, Using bamboo fibers as pile warp improves air permeability of fabric comparing to the usage of cotton fibers, Using bamboo and Lyocel fibers as wefts improves air permeability of the fabric.