Long time ago, there were continuous trials to discover Gypsies secrets, those groups who are owing a place in all countries and those who are living with and on the margin of civilization at the same time. They are formed small states within the countries, having all pillars except for those of land and borders. They are considered as tribes used to travel from one place to another but they were separating and living as groups in all over the world in various places. Thus, there is no Arab country nor European one having no either Gypsies tribe or families regardless the area of this country, its location on the map, the appropriate or inappropriate weather conditions and the kind or the aggressive treatment faced by Gypsies. Despite the abundance of researches and studies conducted on Gypsies reality and the origin of those tribes who are spreading over all countries, but there are rare studies relating to monitoring, recording and analyzing Gypsies costumes and how they form and build up the bases of the costumes and accessories of a community growing up in those circumstances and how their practices and beliefs affect the features of their costumes as well. Thus, Gypsies women costumes are considered as one of the most important creative sources carrying distinguishing colorful and ornamental features, values and specifications affected by their inherited beliefs that some of their styles and models will be illustrated in Egypt and Romania in the form of a comparison after that. This study aims at studying the costumes of Gypsies in Egypt and Romania in general analytically and comparatively. It studies and analyzes the ornamental and structural aspects of their costumes to realize the similarities and differences and the impact of social environment on Gypsies tribe and how to form and construct their costumes. It is worth to mention that the study is conducted between Egypt and Romania as Gypsies groups are spread over Egypt largely in all governorates almost and they are considered one of the most important groups within the Egyptian community as well as they are exist in great rate in Romania reaching 1.8 million, i.e more than the Roman themselves. Although they form around 8% of the country population whose number reaches 22.9 million, but they were able to live within global civilizations holding up with their traditions and way of life that they are used to follow since hundreds of years and they do that believing that it is the best way for human living. This study shows the re-examination of the most important heritage elements related to Gypsies costumes that trace back to ages ago affected by what it passed through as the nature of Gypsies, their separation and spreading over the borders of the countries affect the preservation of their heritage and privacy granting them distinguish and special style. The Problem of the Study: The Problem of the study can be formulated in the following questions: How does the Social Environment affect the Gypsies costumes in both Egypt and Romania representing the sample of the study? What are the most apparent aesthetics of Gypsies Costumes and the distinguish characteristics in Egypt and Romania? To what extent does the Gypsies life affect the formulation of their costumes bases? The Objectives: Studying the historical origins of Gypsies group in Egypt and Romania. Acknowledging the Egyptian and Roman Gypsies costumes and analyzing its constructive and ornamental elements. Studying the similarities and differences aspects combining Gypsies costumes in the sample of the study and analyzing the structural composition of Gypsies costumes as well as the aesthetic and artistic values of the embroidery in it. Significance: The subject of studying Gypsies costumes is rendered as one of the renewable and rich subjects especially in the Arab world. Thus, it is highly concerned by the many authorities whether on the international, the regional, the Arab or the national level. But, few researchers are interested in studying the Gypsies costumes comparing it to his/her scientific and cultural stock of how the Gypsies are affected by the costumes of the surrounding environment. Hence, this study is considered as a scientific addition for the academic level and enriching the Arab library whether through presentation or perception. The significance of the study lies in the necessity to draw a clear road of Gypsies costumes, but the direction towards adopting this kind of research needs for studying the environment of Gypsies community whether the internal or external, therefore the study is considered as the beginning of the road to help those who are wishing to conduct more deep studies for the purpose of studying their cultures, costumes or being inspired by them. Conclusion: Gypsies are belonging to many people since the beginning of their immigration to Europe in 14th century and they engage in many environments. They are co-existed according to the environment they live within and their costumes and its used materials are formed from one place to another. Moreover, they take the existed elements reformulating them within fixed features and main characteristics in their costumes as agreed and known among them. This is highly clear in the form of Gypsies costumes in general in Egypt through abiding by the general design bases and the type of textiles besides the embroideries and used accessories. Considerably, this is confined to reforming the old costumes for processing and reusing. Gypsies costumes in Egypt are distinguished by using their hand-made designs and the pieced produced by themselves. Gypsies in Egypt and Romania are used to use the cheap local materials almost characterized by light, variable colors as well as the innately and irregularly but lovely mixed colors. Furthermore, there was a fluency in using the embroidery methods in terms of formulating various elements with each other in one clothes by different techniques and volumes in unfamiliar form. Through the scientific study, the researchers make sure that the Gypsies costumes are affected by the environment where they exist regardless the differentiation. Besides, they use some costumes' elements that found in their non-Gypsies neighbors clothes but they form it by their hand according to their distinguishable nature and method. Gypsies individuals are keen to adapt and engage in the community they live in, in addition they keen also to keep their minor cultural characteristics. This is highly appearing in the clothes in terms of structure, color and using accessories and jewelry. Gypsies' dressing of colorful and glamorous clothes as part of their identity is a source of inspiration for the communities surrounding them to be affected by them and imitate their way and style of clothing. When we look at Gypsies costumes, we realize its significance as a record of the phases they passed through including the customs and traditions. Thus, some of these phenomenon are very important in explaining the aspects of their national heritage. The researchers reveals some of their old beliefs controlling over their costumes' features and characteristics. The researchers concludes that Gypsies costumes in Egypt and Romania are keeping a general distinguishable appearance looking like as they agree on this. Furthermore, Gypsies costumes are considered generally as part of their culture carrying their suffering as well as their happiness and joy as being a unified language they spoke and known by it, but it differs after that according to their needs, customs, traditions as well as the country and people surrounding them. Methodology: Analytical Descriptive Methodology
Ismail, Ola El-Toukhy; Khalil, Sanaa Ezz-Addin; and Al-Sheikh, Khaled Mahmoud Abdou
"Women Costumes in Egypt and Romania, an Analytical Comparative Study of Gypsies Tribes,"
International Design Journal: Vol. 11
, Article 6.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/faa-design/vol11/iss4/6