The research is summarized in the importance of identifying a lot of the history of the amphora through excavations of shipwrecks that were transporting goods at sea, and knowing the great commercial and economic importance of the amphora historically, as the economy of many countries such as Greece was based on it, and the use of the amphora in transporting goods historically extended before The birth of Christ to the Islamic era and the Middle Ages, and the amphora was the most important mean of transporting goods between countries, including liquid products such as wine and oils, and solid products such as grains, dried fruits, nuts and all kinds of salted fish. Likewise, the possibility of stacking amphora on ships in large numbers, and the amphora was made in factories near places of production such as farms or near sea export ports, and it was formed from the clay of the place in which it was made, and it was formed with a potter’s wheel or by pressing into a mold of gypsum, then the hands were glued, the amphora was made of pottery only, without any coatings, except for the amphora, which carried liquids, and was painted from the inside with pine bark to Closing the pores, and in the Mamluk era, amphoras or ceramic jars were coated with lead or alkaline glass paint, or both, of green or bluish green. From the study of the amphora, the history of its manufacture and the development of its designs over time was also identified to serve the transport of goods between the countries and to identify the trade relations of people. The use of amphora as a ceramic container for transporting goods historically BC until the nineteenth century AD, but after the industrial revolution there was an accompanying revolution in storage containers, so fibrous bags were used in Southeast Asia to transport dry goods, and metal tanks and containers and boxes were used Plywood suitable for transportation by rail and giant sea ships, carton boxes, various plastics, cans, bags, bottles and wooden boxes that facilitated the sub-packing process, and decorating packaging with product designs became an advertisement for the product to attract the user's attention and as a brand of the product, and in the twentieth century the use of containers declined Ceramics in transporting goods, as they were limited to being used as containers for transporting water The amphora was used to transport goods over long distances to save them from damage, and after refrigeration systems were known in ships and others, the transport of fresh food became easy by any means of packing without spoiling, so the use of amphora in transporting goods declined. Other materials have appeared that do not break during transportation and are rather light in weight. Therefore, adequate studies must be done on ceramic containers (amphora)for transporting goods to develop characteristics and designs that are in line with modern transportation conditions to be light or less weight and of high resistance against breaking in terms of durability. lightness and commercial competition between the different materials used in transporting goods, especially that ceramics It is healthy, safe, and have environmental components for its use, as it does not interact with the heat of the sun as a result of poor storage, and it has pores that act as natural ventilation for the products inside, and does not interact with the products inside, and other healthy environmental components that can be used in transporting products, goods, commodities, etc. Research problem: The desire to get acquainted with the historical role represented by the amphora in transporting goods between countries throughout the ages, and the important role of the amphora in the commercial and economic prosperity of these peoples, and the impact of that use on the development of the design and manufacture of the amphora, and to benefit from the study to find out the reasons for the decline of this important role of amphora, and shed light on how Advancement of the role of ceramic containers in line with the conditions of modern transportation of goods and competition with other materials used recently. research aims: 1. A study of the development of the design, manufacture and use of the amphora throughout the ages. 2. A study of the historical sequence of the transport of goods between the countries and the role of the Amphora in this sequence. 3. Benefiting from the historical study of the role of the amphora in the comparison between the past and the present in the use of ceramic containers in transporting goods and highlighting the reasons for its recent decline and how to promote it again. Research hypotheses: 1. The amphora played a major role in the prosperity of trade and economy between peoples in the past. 2. The history of the amphora reveals many answers about the methods of its manufacture, development, uses, daily life, trade and economic relations of peoples, and the transportation of goods. 3. The decline in the role of the amphora in transporting goods after the Second World War is due to the emergence of other raw materials for packing and transporting goods that are lighter and unbreakable, and also for the lack of interest in ceramics and amphora makers in developing their industry to suit the modern competition of many raw materials. Research Methodology: Descriptive analytical method Results: The beginning of knowledge of the amphora was from 3300 BC, and it appeared in Egypt, Mesopotamia, then the Levant and Palestine, and beginning from 200 BC it appeared in Greece, and after the Islamic conquest it flourished in Sicily with distinctive designs as well as in North Africa, and the designs were somewhat similar. The amphora is the basis for the process of transporting goods at the beginning historically, and the huge development in the process of transporting goods recently was built on the development of commercial transport by ceramic containers. The amphora has an important historical role in transporting goods and stimulating trade on a large scale in the Mediterranean region. The design of the amphora has evolved throughout history as a result of the need for trade, so there has been an evolution in the form, handling, storage and trademarks. The designs of the amphoras moved from one country to another as a result of trade and the transportation of goods there, so there was a clear imitation of the amphoras. The Islamic era had its own distinctive forms of amphora in line with the nature of trade and the products that were transported in it, and the wine trade, which was essential in the Roman eras and before, disappeared in it. Most of the designs of the amphorae have a body with a large elongation to increase the contact area in the body while being transported on ships to protect it from breaking. The brand on the ceramic amphorae has existed since ancient times, and it has developed recently as an advertisement for the product on the packaging to attract the consumer to buy it. The use of ceramic amphora was very reduced after the industrial revolution and in the Middle Ages, and other containers appeared with different materials such as carton, tin, plastic and other lightweight materials, and sub-packing (retail) was done directly. Amphora has been used so far in transporting water by ships from one place to another in large amphoras used as containers for water instead of filling it, as well as in the olive oil trade, and this indicates that the use of amphoras in transporting liquids has great health and environmental importance, as evidenced by its continuity so far
Khedr, Nawal Ahmed Ibrahim and Ali, Faten Abdel Fattah Metwally
"The development of the amphora and its role in commercial transportation between countries, past and present.,"
International Design Journal: Vol. 11
, Article 22.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/faa-design/vol11/iss5/22