This is the abstract, usually it does not have references. Usually the reader will read this part first to know what this paper is about and decide upon it to continue reading or not. The font of main text is 10 Times New Roman with single line spacing of 6 pt after and 0 pt before. The titles of sections are font 12, bold and they have single line spacing of 6pt before, 12 pt after, subsections are font 12, Italic and they have single line spacing of 6pt before, 12 pt after. Both upper line and lower line enclosing this part is paper-specific and changes according to the paper, usually it is very similar to the journal header background color, abstract contents are Times New Roman size 10, no line spacing.
R. Latrous, A.; Mahamdi, R.; N. Touafek, B.; and Pasquinelli, M.
"Performance Enhancement in CZTS Solar Cells by SCAPS-1D Software,"
International Journal of Thin Film Science and Technology: Vol. 10
, PP -.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/ijtfst/vol10/iss1/8