A metaheuristic approach is proposed for solving linear bilevel programming problem using the Memetic Particle Swarm Algorithm which uses a Heuristic Pattern Search as the local search. The proposed algorithm has proven to be stable and capable of generating the optimal solution to the linear bilevel programming problem. The numerical results show that the metaheuristic approach is both feasible and efﬁcient.
A. Tawhid, Mohamed and Paluck, Garrett
"Solving Linear Bilevel Programming via Particle Swarm Algorithm with Heuristic Pattern Searc,"
Information Sciences Letters: Vol. 6
, Article 1.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/isl/vol6/iss1/1