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Journal of the General Union of Arab Archaeologists

Journal of the General Union of Arab Archaeologists

Abstract

This paper presents a critical analytical study of agricultural legislation in the African state under Roman rule, with a review of the most important economic features of the state, and the role played by Romanian politics in the development of African economy. The Roman conquest of Africa in 146 BC brought great changes in various economic conditions in Africa, whether in agriculture, industry or commerce, However, African agriculture was the most economic field that experienced changes, where the Roman made several changes, regarding agricultural land-use and the expansion of agriculture and development of management and division into several types according to quality and area, as well as the development of land survey and irrigation systems, through a set of agricultural legislations regulating agriculture and production relations. This agricultural policy resulted in other changes in the fields of industry and trade, which have been largely related to agricultural developments and have relied heavily on their products.

The importance of Africa in the Romanian economy: after the Romans opened Africa in 146 BC. The Roman followed the policy of imposing control over occupied African territory, as a public property of the Roman people Ager Publicus Popli romani from the perspective of the Roman law, the Roman administration has expropriated the ownership of African lands from indigenous peoples and redistribution to the Roman settlers.

Not only was that done by appropriating fertile lands but also pastoral lands and forests, and creating new administrative sections, until Roman Africa became a province completely different from the Punic Africa after the fall of Carthage, turning it into Romanian control. The Roman occupation of Africa has been associated with economic and social problems in Rome and Italy and the reform movement by the Gracos' brothers, where the People's Movement considered settlement and the distribution of land to the poor Latin and Italians a solution to the social problems that emerged in Rome as a result of the destruction on the Italian territory. The populist view led to a state of boiling and conflict between the aristocracy and the People's Movement. In order to control African territory In 123 BC, the aristocratic-popular struggle began on the land of Africa when Giacos Gracos 163-133 BC and succeeded in issuing the Rubros Law known as Lex Rubria. It came in favor of the proletariat where the law allocates a large area of land distributed to six thousand Romans by 50 hectares per person at the expense of land owners. The enactment of that law had brought about the Roman aristocracy unity against Jayos Gracos and his brother. After violent confrontations, the aristocracy regained control of the great monarchy and the conflict led to the deaths of the Gracos. Later, this conflict determined the fate of African territory, where the aristocrats of the Senato Council controlled the large monarchies. They preferred to hire people to bring Italians, and only a very little remained in the hands of the Romanian proletariat

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