It is noticed at the end of the last two decades of the 20th century that many Arab countries are directed to pluralism again due to reason such as political instability necessary for the process of development and construction .first, the average of growth was not up to the required level in a state having plural system. Second , inability to reduce social difficulties leading to emigration of the elite .third, old leaders forestall power without granting a space for youth leadership. Fourth, the third reason was for breaking the national unity due to continuous civil wars and disintegration of the states entity and its institutions and subjecting its sovereignty and stability to dangers of foreign intervention and threats, especially that the one party system did not ensure fair and wide representation of people out of which emerged beaurocracy, shortage of real staff and weak coordination .the political stability that the one party achieves was in form because it does not diminish the struggle for power because politics in essence is the struggle for power. Plurality current is reinforced after the fall of the communist systems (soviet union formerly and eastern Europe) of one party system.
Recent interest in political reformations was not built on the desire of political leaders in the Arab countries but on internal popular pressure and international pressures led by U.S. to spread its model of democracy and globalization to control destinies of populations after ending the role of some leaders who are no more accepted internally and externally and change faces to ensure American interests. The Iraqi experience in political reformation lead some of the Arab states leaders to think of these reformation slowly as not to correspond the American terms but according to their personal interests. so some speak about political participation, elections ,party pluralism ,others release political apprehended to satisfy political opposition .this process will fail if there is real intention in political reformation and participation , setting opinion and the opposite opinion to prevail in tranquil conversations instead of bombing , grabbing, murdering ,torturing , violence and abhorrent violence.
دهام حميد, د. خميس
"التحديث والإصلاح السياسي في الوطن العربي,"
Midad AL-Adab Refereed Quarterly Journal: Vol. 4
, Article 13.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/midad/vol4/iss4/13