Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

Journal of the Arab American University  مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث


The research aims to find the levels and types of defense mechanisms used by students of the University of Kufa , and the degree of difference in the types of defense mechanisms attributed to the variables of gender and academic specialization . A sample of ( 190 ) male and female students was randomly selected , (95) students from two faculties of the scientific specialization (Pharmacy and Engineering) and (95) students from two faculties of humanities(College of Jurisprudence and College of Administration and Economics) and distributed equally between males and females . In order to achieve the objectives of this research, a scale of defense mechanisms was constructed to measure these mechanisms, which were classified into three areas: neurotic, mature, and immature. Having checked the validity of the psychometric characteristics of the scale , it was applied to the sample selected for the present research . The results showed that the students used the defense mechanisms to a high degree . The results also showed that the neurotic defense mechanisms got the first order followed by mature defense mechanisms and finally came the immature defense mechanisms. Based on the results of this research , the researchers made a set of recommendations, including the need to prepare programs in counseling and guidance for the students to alleviate the problems and conflicts that lead to excessive use of defense mechanisms and to promote the psychological awareness of university students to use mature defense mechanisms leading them to psychological and social adjustment, and consequently enabling them to achieve better academic success .