The study aims to identify the level of optimism and pessimism and the level of self-esteem, and the relationship between them, and find out their level varies according to the variables (type of job, monthly salary) of the employees of the Palestinian Authority referred to retire in Gaza Strip. To achieve such thing, the two tools of the study were applied: the measure of optimism and pessimism, and the self-assessment scale (prepared by the researchers) on a sample of (197) male and female employees whom selected by random stratified method. The researchers used the descriptive analytical approach. After analyzing the data, the study reached the following main results: -The level of optimism and pessimism was moderate and the level of self-esteem was high. There is a correlation and relationship between optimism, pessimism and self-esteem, and there were no differences in the level of optimism and pessimism attributed to the variable type of job and monthly salary. There were no differences in the level of self-esteem attributed to the variable of job type, and there are differences due to the monthly salary of Palestinian Authority employees referred to retirement. The study recommended raising the level of psychological efficiency, and developing and adopting psychological and social support programs for retirees to benefit from their experiences.
Mowanes, Khaled and Abu Kwaik, Bassem
"Optimism, pessimism and their relation to self-esteem among Palestinian Authority employees referred to retirement in Gaza Strip-Palestine,"
An-Najah University Journal for Research - B (Humanities): Vol. 34:
2, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/anujr_b/vol34/iss2/4