An-Najah University Journal for Research - B (Humanities)


The Kantian problematic of the so called the natural state of human being, as manifest objectively, is rooted in the notion of natural freedom (free will) for every moral and rational individual. Such a freedom has nothing to do with a human’s ignorance of the deterministic necessity that governs existence, as once addressed by Spinoza. Conversely, it is a natural substance dictated by the pragmatic use of reason for the sake of an individual moral legalization. Drawing on Kant, Spinoza’s paradigm of ethics is an atheist form, or a theoretical alternative representation of religion. However, Spinoza’s paradigm of ethics is, by and large, has a secular foundation, whereas its philosophical ends are bound up with religion. Kant builds on Spinoza’s paradigm of the ethical atheist to refute any attempt to substantiate a form of standardized ethics that has nothing to do with God's existence.