The study seeks to clarify the role that philosophy occupied in critical theory in its second phase at the hands of Jürgen Habermas; especially its role in advocating for the emancipation of human beings and societies through new tools, after the theory suffered from pessimism and negativity at its beginning. This role has become more realistic after philosophy realized its new role in being a partner with other knowledge, and the interaction with this knowledge, especially the technical ones, in terms of impact and influence between them. Habermas transcended the stance of the first theory, led it to new courses, and strengthened it with tools and concepts that contributed to a reality full of challenges and overwhelming influences that led to the "objectification" and "commodification" of man. This led to the isolation and the absence of communication, resulting in morals that affected human lives after robbing them of their freedom. The study showed that philosophy realized this reality in conjunction with the understanding of its new role, especially after the state of alienation that man suffers from due to the tyranny of the instrumental reason, instrumental Rationality and the outputs of positive sciences.
"Jurgen Habermas and the critical theory: philosophy and freedom,"
An-Najah University Journal for Research - B (Humanities): Vol. 37:
2, Article 1.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/anujr_b/vol37/iss2/1