Although it is a relatively minor health problem, bad breath can be a source of distress and social or psychological handicap. The identified causes are of dental origin in 85% of the cases. However, the origin of halitosis is also sought for in ear, nose and throat (ENT), gastrointestinal, pulmonary, respiratory, metabolic and hormonal systems or related to medication. Therefore, this pathology requires a multidisciplinary approach.
YAMINA, Guenane; AYAT, Adel; LAZILI, Hayet; and SAARI, Badia
"L’halitose : origine, classification et traitement,"
International Arab Journal of Dentistry: Vol. 5:
2, Article 5.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/iajd/vol5/iss2/5