Iron Age II is considered the classical period of the Iron Age (figure: 2()). This period shows sudden increase in distribution and diversification in settlement pattern, in South-eastern Arabia (). The settlements during this period expanded to include inland (), mountains () and coastal sites (). Settlements became more diverse to include non-residential architecture. An appearance of irrigation technology (Falaj) along with camel domestication coincides with this increase. This increase was accompanied by regional ()(between the varied types of settlements) and trans-regional contact (with south Arabia) and goods exchange() () ()
The layout, the location, the structure and the material culture excavated from this period reflects a complex community () (). This manifested in the appearance of a belief system related to both irrigation and bronze production (the snake cult) (), specialized labour in pottery (), metal production () () and administration systems (), fortification structures related to the agriculture activity (), symbolic (axe heads on the stamp seals) and prestigious goods for elites ().
This paper argues that irrigation technology was responsible for creating a social elite class. This class was responsible for cyclic production, the expansion and the diversification of settlement patterns using the domestication of the camel.
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Moussa, Noha Kamel Moussa Kamel
"The Contribution of the Domesticated Camel and Advanced Irrigation Techniques (the Horizontal Well/Falaj System) to the Iron Age Economy and Settlement Patterns of the Oman Peninsula and Arabia.,"
Journal of the General Union of Arab Archaeologists: Vol. 4
, Article 3.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/jguaa/vol4/iss1/3